The longitudinal fatigue crack caused by inclusions or contact shear stress leads to peeling; the cyclic shear stress of the guide wheel in the curved outer rail leads to the fatigue of the external rail head, leading to peeling, and the development of the wheel and track maintenance to accelerate the peeling off. Usually stripping will cause the stress concentration in the notch area and affect the ride smoothness, increase the dynamic impact effect, and promote the crack initiation and development in the Notch area. The existence of notch area will hinder the development of metal plastic deformation and reduce the ductility of the rail.
The orbital head nuclear injury is the most dangerous form of damage, which will suddenly break under the action of the train and seriously affect the safety of driving. The main reason for a of orbital head nuclear injury is that there are tiny cracks or defects (such as non-metallic inclusions and white dots) inside the rail head, under repeated dynamic loading in the rail line below the surface of the rail is extremely complex stress combination, so that the fine no cracks first nucleation, and then to the first four weeks of development, until the nuclear wound around the steel is not enough to provide sufficient resistance, the rail in the case of a sudden break. Therefore, the defect of the internal material of rail is the internal cause of the formation of the nuclear injury, and the external load is the extrinsic factor, which promotes the development of the nuclear injury. The development of nuclear injury is related to traffic volume, axle weight, speed of operation and line plane state. To ensure the safety of the traffic, the rail should be inspected regularly.