The track consists of road bed, sleeper, rail, connecting parts, climbing equipment and turnout.
At first the rails were cast and then developed into I-shaped rails, and in the 1980s most of the world's railways used standard gauges (see Railway track geometry) of 1435 mm (4 ft 8 (1/2) inches). The narrow-gauge railway, which is wider than this, is called the gauge railway.
The road bed is directly paved on the roadbed surface, and the ballast, pebble, slag and other materials are used. Rails, sleepers, and road beds are materials of different mechanical properties combined in different ways. Generally speaking, the bottom of the track is the road bed, which provides the flexibility and drainage function for the track. Rails can also be paved on concrete bases (quite common on bridges) and even embedded in concrete.
Sleeper is buried in the road bed, generally laid horizontally, made of wood, reinforced concrete or steel.
The rails are fastened to the sleeper by connecting the parts.